A Dutch scholar named Dr. berkebangsaan. J.L.A. Brandes said that theoretically long before it came the influence of Indian culture, the nation has rnemiliki Java skills or cultural knowledge that includes 10 grains (Brandes, 1889):
(3) science sanjak rhythm,
(6) the currency system itself,
(7) technology science cruises,
(9) agricultural field,
(10) bureaucratic government that regularly
Ten grains cultural skills are not of the Hindu nation of India. If the theory is true means that the existence of gamelan and wayang existed since prehistoric times. However difficult the exact year is known as the prehistoric people to know the system has not been written. There is no written evidence that can be used to track and merunut gamelan in the prehistoric period.
Gamelan is a cultural product to meet the needs of human akan arts. Art is one of the cultural elements that are universal. This means that each nation has ascertained the arts, but wujudnya between the different nations of the nation with one another. When contact occurs between nations and cultures keseniannya also participate berkontak so that one nation can occur be to absorb mengarn or when elements of art from other nations are tailored to the conditions seternpat. Therefore, since the existence of the gamelan until now there have been changes and developments, especially in the completeness ansambelnya.
The term "karawitan" used to refer to the many arts gamelan used by the Java community. Term is the development and use of pemaknaannya. Many people memaknai "karawitan" departs from the basic word "sauce" which means that small, subtle or complex. Perhaps, in the environment of the Kraton Surakarta, the term karawitan also been used as an umbrella from some branch of the arts such as painting tatah, carved, dance, to pedhalangan (Supanggah, 2002:5 ¬ 6).
Dalarn a narrow karawitan term used to mention a type of sound art or music that contain one or both of the following (Supanggah, 2002:12):
(1) using gamelan music - either entirely or partially barrel slendro or pelog - some or all of them.
(2) using the pitch (slendro gamut) and / or instrumental pelog good or non-gamelan gamelan and vocal carnpuran or from both.
Javanese gamelan is now not only known in Indonesia alone, has grown even abroad such as in the United States, UK, Japan, Canada. Karawitan has' the world '. By karna is quite ironic when the nation as the heir to direct Java does not even want to care about the art of gamelan or karawitan art or culture, especially on Java in general. Other nations such tekunnya learn Javanese gamelan, and even in some countries have a set of Javanese gamelan. Already appreciate the Java community as a masterpiece fathers themselves.
Sources of data about gamelan
Javanese culture prehistoric period after entering a new era that is a period when the culture from the outside-in this cultural Indian-start effect. Javanese culture begin to enter the era of history marked by the existence of any posts in the system of community life. View from the historical perspective for the period between VIll century until the XV century Christian culture, and get The elements of Indian culture. Elements seems to Indian culture can also be seen in the arts such as gamelan and dance art. Transformation of cultural music to Java through the Hindu-Buddhist.
Data about the existence of the gamelan is found in the source of the verbal source - the source is written in the form of inscription and literary books that come from the Hindu-Buddhist and piktorial a source of relief dipahatkan on the temple building on either temple-temple originating from the classic Central Java (century-until the 7 th century-10) and the temple-the temple comes from the classical period of the East Java younger (11-th century up century to ¬ 15) (Haryono, 1985). In written sources of the East Javanese gamelan ensemble group said as a "tabeh - tabehan" (Javanese new 'percussion' or 'tetabuhan' which means that all things be pronounced with ditabuh or beaten). Zoetmulder explains the word "gamèl" with musical instrument musical instrument perkusi namely the beaten (1982). In Javanese language is the word "gèmbèl" which means' bat '. In Bali there is a language term 'gambèlan', which then may be the term 'gamelan'. The term 'gamelan' has been mentioned in connection with the music. Namur in the Kadiri (approximately ¬ 13 century BC), a music expert Judith Becker said that even the word "gamelan" comes from the name of a pastor and a Burma expert named Gumlao iron. Becker opinion if this is correct, of course the term 'gamelan' also found in Burma or in some areas in the Southeast Asian mainland, but apparently not.
Gambaran gamelan instruments on temple reliefs
On some parts of the wall of Borobudur temple can be seen 17 kinds of gamelan instruments, namely: kendang dikalungkan equipped with a rope in the neck, shaped like a pot kendang, siter and harp, simbal, flute, saron, xylophone. In the temple Jonggrang Lara (Prambanan) relief image can be seen kendang astigmatism, kendang convex, kendang form of pot, simbal (kècèr), and flute.
Picture relief gamelan instruments in the temple-temple East Java can be found in the temple Jago (centuries to -13 F) the form of musical instrument quotation: long-necked lute and zither. While in the temple Ngrimbi (century - 13 M) have reyong relief (two Bonang pencon). The relief found in large gong temple Kedaton (centuries to M-14), and astigmatism in the temple kendang Tegawangi (14 century-M). In the main temple Panataran (14 century-M) have relief gong, bendhe, kemanak, kendang kind of drum; pandapa terrace and in the relief Gambang, reyong, and simbal. Relief bendhe and bugle in the temple Sukuh (15 century-M).
Based on data on the relief and literary books is that most instructions do not have the influence of India on the existence of some type of Javanese gamelan. The existence of music in India is very closely linked with religious activities. Music is an important element in religious ceremonies (Koentjaraningrat, 1985:42-45). In several books such as book kesastraan India Natya Sastra art music and dance works of art to ritual activity. religious (Vatsyayan, 1968). Overall music group in India called 'vaditra', which are grouped into 5 classes, namely: governance (musical instrument gesek), begat (musical instrument quotation), sushira (musical instrument wind instrument), dhola (kendang), ghana (percussion musical instrument) . The others are:
(1) Avanaddha vadya, noise generated by the vibration due to hit the skin membrane.
(2) Ghana vadya, vibration noise generated by the musical instrument itself.
(3) Sushira vadya, the sound produced by vibration of the air be blown.
(4) Tata vadya, the sound produced by vibration of wire or quoted digesek.
Classification can be equated with membranofon (Avanaddha vadya), ideofon (Ghana vadya), aerofon (sushira vadya), kordofon (governance vadya). Swing music in India as "laya" dibakukan using the pattern 'tune' with the kendang. Rhythm is grouped into: druta (fast), Madhya (medium), and vilambita (slow)